Riz : Rice is a cereal (family of Poaceae, formerly grasses - Botanical name: Oryza sativa) humid regions tropical, subtropical, equatorial and warm temperate, including fruit is a caryopsis (it's a achene whose seed is welded to pericarp) rich en starch.
The word "rice" designates all the plants of the genus Oryza, of which the only two species cultigens, which are grown most often in more or less flooded fields called paddy fields:
– Oryza sativa (commonly called “Asian rice”)
– Oryza glaberrima (commonly called "West African rice" or "Casamance rice").
In everyday language, the term rice most often refers to grains de White rice, which are a fundamental part of thefood many people around the world, especially in Amerique du Sud. as Africa and Asia. It's the first cereal world forfood human beings, the second after maize for the tonnage harvested. The rice is thestaple food to the Food Asian, Chinese, Indian and Japanese in particular.
There are nearly 8000 varieties of rice in the world which are grouped according to the length of the grains : rice to grain short (or grain round), to grain medium or at grain long. the grain of rice with its envelopes (rice in straw) or shelled is prepare for consumption. Unshelled, it is called paddy rice.
Chinese proverb: “Even the best of housewives cannot, if she has no rice, prepare her meal. »
Quote from the Chilean writer Luis Sepúlveda (1949-2020): “Before going to bed, they cooked rice with bananas, and when the meal was over, Antonio José Bolivar cleaned his dentures to put them away in his handkerchief. " in the Old man who read romance novels
Description : Rice is an annual plant glabrous à thatch upright or spreading of variable height, ranging from less than one meter up to five meters for floating rice. It's a plants predisposed to tillering, forming a bouquet de rods, roots fasciculata.
The flowers. as spikelets uniflorous, are grouped into panicles 20 to 30 cm, erect or hanging down. the fruit is a caryopsis wrapped in two lemmas big, tough and adherents, the whole forming the complete rice. The density du White rice believed in Bulk is about 0,9 g/cm3.
According to texture du caryopsis, we distinguish the ordinary varieties, tegument White, most often, or Red ; or glutinous ( sticky rice, sweet rice). African rice varieties are generally at tegument Red.
The rice belongs to the genus Oryza L. which includes 22 species, two of which are cultivated, Oryza sativa L., native to Asia, the most cultivated and Oryza glaberrima Steud., or Casamance rice, originating inWest Africa.
Oryza sativa comes from various domestication events that took place around 5000 BC. in India north, and around the Sino-Burmese border. The parent sauvage cultivated rice is Oryza rufipogon (formerly the annual forms of Oryza rufipogon were named Oryza nivara). Not to be confused with rice named rice sauvage ( discord), of the botanical genus tares.
Oryza glaberrima originates from the domestication of Oryza barthii. It is not known where domestication took place, but it appears to date from before 500 BC. JC.
For several decades, this rice has been grown less and less in Africa where Asian rice is increasingly preferred. Today, hybrid sativa-glaberrima varieties combining the qualities of the two species are distributed under the name “Nérica”.
History of rice : Man (and Woman) began to cultivate rice almost 10 years ago during the Neolithic revolution. It develops first in China and then in the rest of the world. rice collection sauvage (including the ball se detached spontaneously) is indeed attested in China from 13000 BC. J.-C. then this rice disappears (probably because of a drought) while the cultivated rice (rice selected for its yield and its husk which is preserved and is carried by the wind only during the winnowing of the grains ) appears around 9000 BC. J.-C. after having undergone hybridizations with the perennial wild species Oryza rufipogon (which has existed for less than 680 years) and the annual wild species Oryza nivara, these different rices coexisting for thousands of years, which favored genetic exchanges. It wasn't until about 5 years ago in China that domestic rice stopped varying and hybridizing, becoming the only cultivated form of rice.
However, it seems that the species Oryza sativa be from southernIndia. It then spread to Korea, to Philippines (around 2000 BC), in Japan and Indonesia (probably in 1000 BC). Then the Persians imported it into Mesopotamia and Turkestan, and Alexander the Great, who invaded India in 320 BC. J.-C., reported it in Greece and in Persia.
Arab travelers favored the expansion of this cereal en Egypt in Morocco and Spain, where rice holds a more important place in thefood that France.
En France, it was the Crusaders who brought rice in the 1393th century. Rice is mentioned as early as XNUMX in France, in the Mesnagier of Paris, but it is still an import product.
Various cultivation attempts followed without much success, despite an edict from Sully (1603).
Portuguese and Dutch introduced it to West Africa from the 1500th century, then to America at the end of the XNUMXth century. In Africa, around XNUMX BC. J.-C., another species of rice (Oryza globerino) was cultivated in the West, from Senegal on the shores of Niger.
It was the Muslims who introduced it to al-Andalus (Iberian Peninsula). In Italy, it appears in 1468. In France, cultivation attempts were made in the XNUMXth century, but it was only in the second half of the XNUMXth century that this culture developed, in parallel with the development of the delta of the Rhone.
Since 1942, rice cultivation has been practiced in Camargue (South of the France), but its production represents only 20% of national consumption. In addition to the rice produced in Guyana, France regardless ofItaly, United States of America, Thailand, ofSpain and D'India.
Rice is cultivated in various ways. Rainfed rice cultivation, without flooding of the field, is a non-aquatic culture, it is distinguished from aquatic cultures, flooded rice cultivation where the level ofwater is uncontrolled, and irrigated rice cultivation where the presence of water and its level are controlled by the farmer. A field cultivated with rice is called rice field.
Almost 2 varieties of rice are cultivated today. The difficulties associated with growing rice mean that, unlike the wheat, it is grown in very few countries. Thus, nearly 90% of world production is supplied by monsoon Asia. On their own, the total productions added to the China and India exceed half of world production. This can be explained in particular by the climatic requirements of rice.
Indeed, the needs of plants en heat. as humidity and light are very specific. Only in tropical and subtropical regions can rice be grown all year round. The light intensity required limits its production to areas located between the 45th parallel north and the 35th parallel south, while the soil conditions (*) required prove to be more flexible, the plant being relatively accommodating. Rice cultivation, however, requires humidity important: the needs amount to at least 100 mm of water per month.
Rice cultivation requires very large quantities ofwater, more than 1 tonnes ofwater per ton of rice. This is the reason why it is located in wet or humid areas such as the China of the South, the deltas of Mekong and Red River au Vietnam, , Or Camargue en France.
Added to all these climatic obstacles is the difficulty in harvesting rice. The harvest is not automated everywhere (harvesters), which requires a large human workforce. This aspect of human capital costs plays a major role in the consideration of rice as a crop of poor countries.
(*) Pedology:Industry de applied geology which studies the chemical characteristics, physical and biological, the evolution and distribution of soils.
Irrigated rice growing requires flat surfaces, irrigation canals, levees, it is carried out in plains or lowlands. In mountainous areas, this type of cultivation is sometimes practiced on terraces. Moreover, the seedlings rice aquatic are first obtained in a nursery before being transplanted under a water slide in previously plowed soil. In the long term, maintenance also poses serious problems because it requires weeding and weeding of the land before carrying out the harvest with the mandatory sickle and whose yields turn out to be low. This mechanism is that of so-called intensive rice cultivation because it has the best yields and allows several crops per year (up to seven every two years, i.e. more than three per year in the delta of Mekong).
Flooded rice cultivation is practiced in areas that are naturally flooded. This category includes two types of cultivation, one at shallow depth, and comparable in less control to irrigated cultivation, the other at great depth (sometimes between 4 and 5 meters during floods) where particular varieties of floating rice , such as Oryza glaberrima, are cultivated. These cultures are traditional in the central delta of Niger in Mali from Segou à Gao or even Niamey. Sown without transplanting, this rice aquatic is fast growing, but not very productive. The term floating rice is incorrect although the rods strongly elongated and full of air float at the time of the decline. It is necessary to prefer “rice de crue” or “deep flood rice”. You need photosensitive varieties. The cycle depends on both rainfall and flooding: germination et tillering are done by rain, rising under rising floods up to 4 cm/day, heading et flowering under flood stable, ripening and harvesting as the floods recede. At Small this culture goes from Segou à Gao along the Niger River and major rivers. Beyond the central delta, the flood may be slow to subside: it is then necessary to harvest by canoe (at the Lake Tele especially). Sometimes, there are intermediate situations where the level of flooding is partially controlled: Simple developments costing around a tenth of the cost for irrigation, make it possible to delay the flood and the recession. Additional fittings make it possible to reduce the height ofwater for each altitude zone. You have to change variety every 30cm of water depth. There is little research on this, but the varieties traditional are more resistant to the hazards of flooding. They are not very productive but strong tasty.
There is also so-called rainfed rice cultivation, which depends solely on rainfall. Upland rice is not grown “with its feet in the water” and does not require continuous irrigation. This type of culture can be found in the tropical zones ofWest Africa. These cultures are extensive or dry, and offer lower yields than irrigated rice cultivation.
Forms of rice marketed: From his harvest, rice can be marketed at several stages of processing:
- the paddy rice (term coming from the Malay padi, which designates standing rice in the rice field) is in its raw state, it is "unhusked rice" which has retained its ball after beating. It is also cultivated in aquariums, for its paramecia (large protozoa porteur eyelashes vibratile) dyears on barm grain.
Generally, 1 kilogram of rice “ paddy » gives 750 g of rice « cargo or complete rice » and 600 g of « White rice ».
– Cargo rice, also called brown rice or complete rice, is a rice shelled, that is, raw rice (paddy) was rid of its ball, its outer envelopes or lemmas members not groceries, but the are and the germ are still present, while its color is beige.
It is constituted by the grain stallion which has retained a brownish film which constitutes the are rice (made from pericarp du fruit and tegument of the seed intimately welded to form the caryopsis), as well as the barm. It's a type of grain stallion. It is harder to chew that White rice et rancid faster, but is more digest and has more than Nutritional value, because the are of rice is rich into elements sought in certain diets dietary: fibre, B1 vitamins et B6, fer, magnesium, Potassium, while the barm brings Fatty acids and protein and that the layer at aleurone provides elements that inhibit angiotensin (*) having an influence in the development of arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis.
Sa baking is facilitated by a soaking prior.
(*) Angiotensinogen, angiotensin I and angiotensin II are peptides involved in the maintenance of volume and blood pressure.
En Asia, it is associated with poverty and times of war. In North America, it is often associated with healthy eating.
Cargo rice is called:
– Vietnamese: gạo lứt;
– Korean: 현미, hyeonmi;
– Japanese: 玄米, genmai;
– Chinese: 糙米, pinyin: cāomǐ.
- Rice bleached ou White rice is the name given to rice shelled or machined or bleached (The Scotland removed). It is a rice whose are and the germ have also been removed. There are almost only reserves left. starchy (the'endosperm).
This transformation is carried out in order to avoid the degradation rice and thus prolong its shelf life. preservation. Then the rice is polished giving it a appearance blanche et bright : it is freed, by passing it through polishing cones, of the flours which adhere to the grainsthen ice cream (coated by end couche of talc (*) suspended in a solution de glucose).
(*) Talc: Silicate natural of magnesium, which comes in the form of Finnish Sequins pearly in metamorphic rocks. Marketed powder of this substance.
The polishing operation removes a large part of its qualities nutritional. a diet based on White rice not enriched can cause neurological diseases such as beriberi (**), due to a deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1). The White rice is often re-enriched with residues of the previous treatment.
To United States of America, it is mandatory to re-enrich the White rice with some B1 vitamins, B3 and fer.
Since the XNUMXth century, brown rice and wild rice have periodically been touted as healthier. the are du complete rice containing fiber and germ, vitamins and mineral salts. This in opposition to the traditionalist view of cargo rice (complete rice) which is associated with poverty and starvation.
(**) Beriberi: Disease characterized by a deficiency in vitamin B1 (thiamin) in the body. Beriberi is usually caused by an unhealthy diet or alcoholism. Possible symptoms are loss of appetite, weakness, pain in the limbs, shortness of breath, and swelling in the feet or legs. Treatment involves taking vitamin B1 supplements and eating more foods rich in vitamin B1, such as whole grains, beans, and beef.
- Rice steamroom is a form of rice, often called sticky rice, is a White rice or brown rice subjected to heat treatment before marketing to prevent the grains ne stick between them. We also use the English "rice parboiled ».
Its nutritional value is higher than that of White rice, and approaches (without however reaching it) that of the complete rice (“cargo”). Steaming ('parboiling') is a process that is carried out today all over the world, most of the time using the most modern technologies.
The process ofsteaming is made on raw rice (paddy), which then undergoes the normal treatment in the rice mill where it is shelled then transformed. In the past, we obtained an effect ofsteaming mitigated by treating the rice steam cooked then doing it slimming au sun. Rice steamroom is slightly yellow, but turns white on cooking. It remains grainy even in the event of baking prolonged.
THEsteaming rice: The air contained in the rice brut is removed using vacuum. Doing soak rice inwater lukewarm, vitamins et mineral salts contained in the barm and pericarp se detach.
Then the water-soluble materials are pressed back inside the rice grain using water Vapour and very strong pressure.
THEstarch on the surface of the grain of rice is again exposed to the steam hot to harden le grain. It is thanks to this sealing that the materials nutritious remain locked in the grain. Then the rice is dried.
Rice steamroom is slightly translucent et yellowish, but he whitens to the baking, retains its appearance and not hill not. He's more light and and flavor plus delicate than brown rice (or complete rice).
It is the most rice feeding after brown rice (or complete rice); however, it contains less fibers.
Variety classification : Cultivated rice exists in many varieties, several thousand, which have historically been classified into three groups: japonica short spikelet, indicates à spikelet very long, and an intermediate group formerly named javanica.
Today, Asian rice is classified into two subspecies, indicates et japonica, on a molecular basis, but also of reproductive incompatibility. These two groups correspond to two domestication events that took place on either side of theHimalayas. The rices formerly called "javanica" belong to the japonica group. We sometimes speak of “tropical japonica”.
The subspecies indicates groups together indicates classical, “aus” ecotypes, and floating ecotypes.
The subspecies japonica regroup the japonica temperate and tropical (ex-javanica, generally suitable for "dry" cultivation, i.e. without flooding the field), fragrant long-grain rice (basmati and sari), and floating ecotypes.
The thousands of existing rice varieties are sometimes classified according to their degree of precocity, depending on the length of the vegetative cycle (on average 160 days). We are then talking about varieties very early (90 to 100 days, “aus” ecoptypes), early, semi-early, late, very late (more than 210 days). This method of classification, if it is practical from an agronomic point of view, however has no value. taxonomic.
The genus Oryza includes about twenty different species.
Many classifications of these species into complexes, tribes, series, etc. have been proposed, and more or less overlap with each other. The classification proposed here has the advantage of being simple, and incorporates the most recent works. The basis of these classifications is the organization of the genome (ploidy, level of genome homology, etc.), but is consistent with the morphological characteristics observed in these different species.
The sativa complex: In this group are found the two species of cultivated rice, their parents wild, and related species.
– Oryza sativa Linn., Asian cultivated rice, a species cultigen.
– Oryza sativa f. spontaneous auct.
– Oryza rufipogon Griff., is the supposed relative of the cultivated species Oryza sativa, Asian rice. Some individuals of this species are plants annual, others are perennial. Traditionally, the annual form of Oryza rufipogon was called Oryza nivara. This species name should no longer be used today, because the annual forms and perennial are completely interfertile, and do not form two distinct populations. In order to remove any ambiguity, one sometimes writes Oryza rufipogon sensu lato to designate this species in its new meaning on the form sustainable, on the annual form (ex-Oryza nivara).
– Oryza meridionalis Ng.
– Oryza glumaepatula comes fromAmerique du Sud. This species cannot be distinguished from Oryza rufipogon on a morphological basis. However, it is indeed a different species because the plants of Oryza glumaepatula and Oryza rufipogon are not interfertile.
– Oryza glaberrima Steud., Casamance rice. Species cultigen, it was probably domesticated in West Africa from the species sauvage annual Oryza barthii. Oryza glaberrima is grown only in West Africa (From Senegal until Lake Chad) while Oryza barthii is present in East Africa (Tanzania) and southern (Zambia).
– Oryza barthii A. Chev., probable wild relative of Casamance rice (Oryza glaberrima). This species also exists in the form ofweeds some of which have historically been named Oryza stapfii A. Chev. We also find in the literature the name Oryza breviligulata which is synonymous with Oryza barthii.
– Oryza longistaminata Chev. & Roche.
The officinalis complex. This other large group includes species with a more diversified ecology: we find species growing in the sun in permanently or temporarily flooded areas, but also species growing in the undergrowth, or in non-flooded areas.
– Oryza officinalis Wall.
– Oryza minuta Pres.
– Oryza rhizomatis Vaughan, is restricted to the island of Ceylon (Sri Lanka).
– Oryza eichingeri Peter.
– Oryza punctata Kotschy ex Stend.
– Oryza latifolia Beauv.
– Oryza alta Swallen.
– Oryza aussisis Domin.
– Oryza grandiglumis (Don.) Prod.
Two other groups smaller in number of species are described in the rice literature:
– Oryza ridleyi Hook. f.
– Oryza longiglumis P. Jansen.
– Oryza sativa lotto
Finally, the following two species are not grouped with any other:
– Oryza schlechteri Pilqer – This species is close to the ridleyi complex, but would not be part of it.
– Oryza brachyantha Chev. is totally independent.
Rice production: In recent years, the increase in rice production has been mainly due to the increase in yields, but there has recently been a relative stagnation of the latter (about 3,8 tons per hectare). Overall rice production fluctuates less than that of wheat, due in particular to the lower economic and political stakes.
In 2014, the world production of complete rice amounted to 685 million tonnes against only 585 in 2004 (source: FAO).
Historically, if theEgypt is one of the largest producers of rice, it has been experiencing difficulties since 2008. Its international affairs policy has indeed since 2008 prohibited the export of its rice production. Decision which is marked definitively in 2011 with the revolt of the people against the dictator president Hosni Mubarak. the Small is a major producer of two types of rice: traditional flood rice (glaberrima) and irrigated rice managed by theOffice of Niger.
En Europe,Italy,Spain, France, Greece and Portugal are rice producers.
THEItaly, with 1,5 Mt (2009), is the main European producer and the twenty-eighth in the world. Cultivation is concentrated mainly in the regions of Piedmont and Lombardie, in the triangle Vercelli, Novara, Pavia.
La France produced 2009 tons in 138, mainly in Camargue.
Le Morocco ensures a small production but very insufficient for national consumption and which must therefore import.
The region of Valencia and Murcia en Spain has numerous rice fields that produce four varieties of rice (arroz) benefiting from a denomination of origin: the albufera, the bahia, bomb and senia which are used to make many receipts including the famous Valencian paella our sea food et shellfish.
|Main producing countries (2008, FAO)|
|Cultivated area (Mha)||Yield (ton/ha)||Production (Mt)||Production (%)|
|United States of America||1,26||7,94||9,97||1,46|
Rice exporting countries: In 2008, a year of food crisis, only 2 Mt of rice were exported (less than 0,3% of world production), including 1,80 Mt by United States of America, which since 2005 have been the world's leading exporter (10,1 Mt in 2005).
La Thailand was the world's leading exporter in 2004, going from 7,58 Mt exported in 2003 to 10,13 Mt for a forecast of 8,5 Mt in 2005; in 2014 exports were 6,6 Mt and reached a record in 2014 with 10,8 Mt.
hom mali rice, perfumed subtly like flower blanche du jasmine, accounts for 25% of exports, bringing in some $2,5 million a year to the country at about $550 per ton, compared to $250 for the White rice. A million small farmers in the north-east of the country, a region known asIsan, most often have to make do with a monthly income of barely 200 dollars and live well below the precariousness threshold depending on the monsoon.
Le Vietnam, is the second largest exporter: 3,9 Mt (2004); 3,8 to 4,0 Mt (2005); 6,7 Mt (2013) and 5,96 Mt (2014)India was the second largest exporter in 2002: 6,7 Mt (2002); 4,3 Mt (2003); 2,8 Mt (2004); 1,4 Mt (2005), becoming a net importer for the first time in 2009, due to a very weak monsoon season followed by floods; I'Uruguay becoming the world's 8th largest exporter in 2009. Taiwan takes part in aid operations by distributing rice.
Le Japan is also an exporting country which in 2014 seeks to export rice from Fukushima (riz Koshihikari).
Rice importing countries: In 2013, the main importer was the Mexico, with 716 kt (kiloton), ahead of the Nicaragua (138 kt) and the Honduras (104 kt).
The Philippines, traditionally the largest importer of rice, imported 0,985 Mt in 2004 and imports are estimated at 1,1 Mt for 2005. PRC has a huge stock of rice estimated at 42 Mt, its purchase forecast is for 0,7 Mt in 2005.
Usual types of rice according to the size of the grains and according to the specific typology: When marketed for food purposes or when used in receipts, the different varieties of (grains of) rice can be classified according to two criteria: decals its grains and their membership in type rice with special characteristics.
The usual classification of rice according to the decals its grains, whose decals commercial varieties is generally between 2,5 mm and 10 mm is as follows:
Long grain rice :
– Rice with grain long, whose grains must measure at least 7 to 8 mm and are rather fins. To the baking, grains swell little, their forms is preserved and they do notagglutinate almost none. These are rices often used during the preparation de main dishes or like accompagnement. Many species of the indica varietal group are sold under this designation.
- The basmati rice, grown in India and Pakistan, is a rice with grains long and spot de color cream in taste very end. Essential to the Food Indian and Eastern basmati rice has texture and flavor light et dry. He is very aromatic. We put it first soak inwater, then it is cooked in less than liquid, low heat.
- The thai rice, derived from Thailand, is a rice perfumed long-grained, which releases a Odour de jasmine. red rice is a variety Thai rice.
This rice, like rice purple, is a rice from the fairtrade jewelry. He presents himself as complete rice and has a Odour byoat in the state raw.
Green rice from Thailand is grainy flattened.
- The White rice du Suriname, grains very long and very fins, is produced in the country of the same name (formerly Dutch Guiana). Therefore, it is widespread in Netherlands.
Medium grain rice :
– Medium-grain rice or grain way, whose grains are larger than the grains long (the relationship between length and width oscillates between 2 and 3) and which reach a length between 5 and 6 millimeters, may be, depending on the varieties, eaten in accompagnement or belong to variety de sticky rice (as the california mochi for example).
Most often this type of rice is slightly more bib tights than long rice.
- The senia rice, Bahia rice et rice bomba, medium-long grain, grown in Spain, are mainly used for making the paella and the “arroz” (of spot made from rice and various ingredients) Spanish (or South American and also Filipino), rice dishes variously accompanied.
The most famous is the bomba rice de calasparraNear Murcia.
Without forgetting the ricelagoon obtained varieties senia and bomb, protected by thedesignation "Water of Valencia »
Short grain rice :
– Rice with grain court, round rice or grain rice Oval is the variety most used for desserts or the risotto. The grains are generally 4 to 5 mm long and 2,5 mm wide. They often stick together.
– Japanese rice, grains round, not widely used, is intended in particular for the preparation of sushi. sticky rice( glutinous), with long grains which become translucent and s'agglutinate to the baking, has a high starch content. In China and South East Asia, it is present in the meatballs, cakes and desserts. (See Sticky rice below).
- The koshi hikari rice : It's a rice Japanese produced by cooperatives specialized in rice production biological variety koshi hikari, one of the best in the country. This rice remains a patented extraordinary reserved for an elite.
The preceding classification is also accompanied by classification based on more gustatory. We often distinguish the sticky rice Asian (whose grains are often long or way and s'agglutinate between them), the rice perfumed which have a particular flavor (the basmati being the best known in the West), or rice with Risotto (which is most often rice round ou way, as'tree or Carnaroli).
In addition, in some parts of the world different cultivars to get different colors rice, like Red (Madagascar), yellow (Iran) Or purple (Laos ).
– Rice for Risotto is grown in the plain of the Po. as Lombardie, is a rice with grains long but bulging. arborio rice et carnaroli rice, guaranteeing creaminess to the baking, are the most commonly used. It is considered one of the most fins, Because he absorbed a lot of liquid de baking without too much soften.
- The wild rice ( discord et Zizanie des Marais) : Rice sauvage grows mainly in swamps and calm lakes in the Canada and United States of America. Native Americans (*) have been gathering and enjoying it for several centuries. It is composed of seeds black by grass, discord aquatic, which look like needles. This rice very research is color blackish. He owns a flavor de hazelnut pronounced. We cooked withwater or the family broth as soon as we did soak. The accompanied le game and this Marie well with the champignons, fruits and nuts. Rice sauvage contains more protein than rice.
(*) Natives, sometimes Native Americans or Native Americans, are the peoples who inhabited the Americas before European colonization, as well as their descendants. The terms Amerindians, American Indians and Indians are still used in French-speaking countries to designate them, but are not recommended in Canada.
- The revered black rice : The revered black rice is from China. According to legend, he was highly valued at the court of ancient Chinese emperors, thanks to his properties nutritional et aphrodisiacs (hence the name Forbidden Rice).
Le revered black rice owes its name to the color purple very dark its lemmas which is mainly due to their Teneur high in anthocyanin. It should be noted that without theenvelope its grains, this rice is White, like the others.
It's rice ideal for receipts festive, original et refined.
That's a subtle complete rice, pleasantly perfumed, evoking the aromas du sandalwood and pain just got out of four. This Black rice is ideal as accompagnement an flat de meat, fish or shellfish, but maybe accommodated en Risotto for all who appreciate the marriage of flavors and colors. This rice is now grown in some areas of the plain of the Po en Italy.
- The riso nostrano ticinese: a Swiss rice, the riso nostrano ticinese is the only rice grown in Switzerland in the canton of Tessin and the northernmost in the world. Unlike theAsia where the plants of rice grow in thewater, riso nostrano ticinese is grown in the delta of the maggia, Ticino river, in the form of culture at dry. climate local only allows one harvest per year. It is mainly used to make risottos (In safran) and accompanied various meat ou delicatessen like the famous sausage de porc Ticino, luganiga.
- The Grumolo delle Abbadesse rice : The Grumolo delle Abbadesse rice is a patented typical of the Veneto followed by the Slow Food and produced at Grumolo of Abbesses, a small town on the border between the provinces of Vicenza and Padua. rice was introduced by Benedictine nuns and has been cultivated since the XNUMXth century. The reclamation of land, the draining of marshes and the construction of canals are also due to the abbesses. The variety Grumolo is the variety of rice vialone nano à grains tinyBut quality, thanks to the characteristics of the soil and thewater, East excellent.
- The rice vialone nano : The rice vialone nano is a rice Italian to small grains (said dwarf ou dwarf in Italian), very dense en starch, ideal for risottos liquids to the baking delicate.
It is produced in the region of Verona. The manufacturing technique of vialone rice nano is Handcrafted production.
- The rice precooked (or rice speed) is shelled ou bleachedthen boiled for one to three minutes after soakingAnd finally, dehydrated at 200°C in order to shorten the time of baking. He has few taste and even less nutritional value than the White rice.
Uses and products derived from rice : Processed rice gives many by-products.
- The popped rice (literally: rice bursts) is a rice heated at 200°C inoil, which looks like pop corn.
- The rice flakes are rice in flakes prepared with rice steamroom, shelledthen flattened en strips thin ; they are used for breakfasts, watered de Milk et sweet. See Poha rice.
The flakes of rice are grains to broken cooked, molded en flakesthen grilled et dried au four. The semolina rice, the cream of rice and rice flour are from grinding de broken rice very white ; they work in pastry and for bonds. noodles and cakes Asian (used, for example, for " Spring Rolls ”) are made with rice flour.
- The broken of rice sometimes replace part of the malt en brasserie.
– We should also mention the carry de l 'Reunion Island, rice cake, plow byUzbekistan, ceebu jen (Senegal), the nasi padang (Indonesia), the koba (Madagascar) or the sudah Karis (Djibouti).
Rice, staple food in the majority of southernAsia and, since its introduction by the French in the XNUMXth century, in many countries ofWest Africa and sub-Saharan Africa. On the other hand, rice has always been thestaple food à Madagascar. It also enters into the composition of many spot European as the paella (or the much lesser known Riz Casimir) and many others receipts rice saffron bySpain, risotto originating fromItaly, probably influenced by rice with chinese lake loc beef.
En Asia, the famous Cantonese rice mixing various meat et vegetables from China or the rice lok lak, it is more generally served separately in a bowl as starchy basic.
Le sticky rice (See Sticky rice) is used in many spot and especially in what we would call in France dessert ; Of the sweet things such as bowls de coco from the south of the China, mochi du Japan, zongzi or the tangyuán to the lantern festival en China or Chinese New Year. He is also in the nian gao de China et Korea et starchy accompagnement many spot en South East Asia (Cambodia, Laos , Thailand et Vietnam, ).
Cooking and preparing rice : The baking rice is practiced mainly in thewater (Creole style ou indian style), steam, cooked in fat (rice pilaf) or to Milk and coconut milk (milk rice) in the countries ofAsia orOceania.
Rice has a great power ofabsorption and s'imbibes of all the liquids, According to baking. All the art is to hold it medium rare, so that the grains are farms (and cook until pasta is) But no majors detach good and retain their flavor ; the only exception concerns the baking au Milk. Unless to be precooked (or pretreated), the rice must be previously washed several times atwater fresh and drained, except for some preparations (Risotto, paella, arroz a la valenciana for example).
Its preparations major remain the curry, paella, the arroz (spot dishes made with rice and various ingredients), the pilaf and Risotto, but he accompanied traditionally the blanquette de veal, skewers, mouton, fish grilled, white hen and chicken.
It serves as garnish or Liaison de potage, and is at the center of the rivet table (Literally backgammon rice) dutch.
Rice is the basis of many receipts. He is one of ingredients of mixed salads, garnished de rawness, sea food, ham, ofblack olives, fish (thon) , etc.
Au Japan, it is the essential basic element of sushi et makizushi.
En Italy, it's'ingredient essential basis of arancinis sicilians.
Throughout theAsia, rice noodles ou rice vermicelli accompany the fish, meat and vegetables.
Savory rice preparations :
Sweet rice preparations : Rice is used in the composition of many desserts et desserts : rice cakes et crowns garnished de fruits, But also pie with rice, Risotto sugar (garnished withcitrus, cherries, kernels de noix, etc. as the Riz Casimir), milk rice et terrine (desserts sugar typical to the Food Norman).
Finally, the rice is used to make up croquettes, rice balls Anglo-Saxon, arancinis sweet, pudding et subrics.
Other rice products : In Asia, rice is also used to makealcohol ou alcoholic beverages (rice wine), to Japan such as sake, soju en Korea and certain alcohols Chinese, the majority of Chinese alcohols (called in China popular baijiu, this term meaning rather White wine (of vine) To Taiwan which is based on sorghum.
the chum Vietnamese lab coat Malay and the mirin Japanese (wine weakly alcoholic reserved for the Food), Thealcohol from Chinese chan xing (or " yellow wine Chinese").