Xylitol : Xylitol is a polyol extracted frombark de birch, considered for twenty years as a remarkable surrogate du sucre training (sucrose) in Scandinavian countries. Xylitol is commonly referred to as sucre de birch.
Its European code asfood additive is E967.
Certain benefits such as its antibacterial effects make it a possible answer to public health problems related to the overconsumption of sucre, or as a treatment solution for sinusitis.
Taste: Xylitol has the same sweetness and the same flavor that sucrose (almost similar sweetness). On the other hand, xylitol has a cooling effect and its caloric intake is lower than that of sucrose with 2,4 kcal/g against 4,0 kcal/g.
Xylitol, like most polyols such as erythritol, mannitol and sorbitol, produces a cooling effect by appetizer. However, it is the one that produces the most pronounced effect among the polyols. For this reason, xylitol is thesweetener de treats « refreshing the breath”.
In addition, xylitol has a very low glycemic index which makes it an asset in the fight against seizures.hyperglycemia (glycemic index of 7).
Chemistry: Xylitol is a polyol (sucre alcohol). The chemical formula of xylitol is C5H12O5. Its systemic name is (2,3,4,5) tetrahydroxy-pentanol but may be referred to in different works as: 1,2,3,4,5-Pentahydroxypentane D-Xylit or (2R,3R,4S)-pentane- 1,2,3,4,5-pentanol.
It was discovered and synthesized in 1891 by Hermann Emil Fischer, a German chemist, and his associates.
Xylitol is present in many fruits et berries but its commercial extraction from these sources is not contemplated.
It is extracted from wood, corn on the cob, cane pulp, thimbles de seeds, straw, shells de coconut.
These sources contain 20-35% xylan which is converted to xylose by hydrolysis acid, then hydrogenated (Ni catalysis or Cr chromite) to obtain xylitol (conversion of the terminal —CHO group into —CH2OH).
THEhydrogenation is followed by several separation and purification steps.
The final product contains very few impurities, among which appear mannitol, sorbitol, galactitol or arabitol.
The other production methods used more rarely consist of the conversion of glucose (dextrose) in xylose followed by a hydrogenation to obtain xylitol, or the microbiological conversion of xylose to xylitol.