Aperitif : An aperitif (or more colloquially a aperitif), is a drink, served before meal in some cultures to whet the appetite. The aperitif is often drunk after having toast, following the tradition. Plant-based drinks known for their aperitif properties, such as anise, are generally chosen.
The aperitif designates by extension the snack which can precede the meal. This then encompasses the amuse bouche, among which the most classic are pistachios, chips or peanuts. By extension, the aperitif applies to all foods (small cakes, cut fruit, olives, charcuteries, Tapas, cheese and other assorted assortments) which are served as an accompaniment to this drink, which corresponds to the concept of Tapas and that of zakouski Russian.
By extension, the aperitif designates in French the moment of conviviality (the place of sociability) where people meet to consume these drinks and these foods while discussing, even without having planned to have a joint meal afterwards. As such, the aperitif is also a light meal, where cocktails can also be consumed, it is often referred to in this case as a “dinner aperitif”.
Origin: The word "aperitif" comes from Latin appertivus, derived from open up which means "to open".
The Assyrians took an aperitif at wine de webbed.
The Romans had many wines cooked for the same occasion.
The Germans in the XXII century liked to taste, before a meal, a mixed wine of absinthe, which they called Wermut, where the word Vermouth comes from.
In the Middle Ages, when certain alcoholic drinks were still reserved for medical use, at the start of the meal a drink made from wine and aromatic plants (sage wine) or wine and spices such as clairé ("Viandier" by Taillevent, 1486 edition. The hypocras, made from Red wine, is a digestive for purposes of meal).
The modern aperitif was popularized in 1846 by Joseph Dubonnet, a French chemist, who developed a drink made from wine and quinine to fight against malaria. This medicine having a bitter taste, he masked it with a decoction of herbs and spices with a strong flavor. The soldiers of the Foreign Legion first used it in the mosquito-infested swamps in North Africa. Then Joseph's wife was the first to serve the potion as an aperitif with her friends, and word of mouth ensured the popularity of Dubonnet.
Archival documents show, however, that the aperitif appeared in Turin in 1786. A man named Antonio Benedetto Carpano invented a vermouth in this city. Years later, vermouths were marketed by houses like Martini, Cinzano and Gancia.
During the 1900th century aperitifs were commonly drunk in Italy, where they were served in fashionable cafes. This fashion spread throughout Europe. In the early XNUMXs, they crossed the Atlantic to conquer the United States of America and Latin America.
Drinks consumed as an aperitif:
By considering these products according to their alcoholic strength, we distinguish:
- products with a high alcohol content (generally more than 40% vol.):
pure: whiskey and whiskey, bourbon ;
mixed: fine with water (cognac), gin fizz, pisco sour, punch, pastis - the aperitif par excellence of the Marseille region -, anisette - popular among the Pieds-Noirs community, accompanied by the chemistry ; absinthe, the aperitif of the XNUMXth century and its successor, the Pontarlier.
- products with an intermediate alcoholic strength (generally more than 16% vol.):
- Yellow gentian;
- wine scented, possibly enhanced by adding alcohol (quinquinas, thorn shoots, guignolet, peach wine, walnut wine, etc.);
- natural sweet wines (port, banyuls) and other transferred (Pineau des Charentes, floc of Gascony, knob, etc.);
- wines, which are all likely to find an amateur in this use. The most consensual being:
- the sparkling wines, sparkling wines et pearl wines : white and rosé champagnes, Clairette de Die, Saumur brut, Crémant d'Alsace or Crémant de Bordeaux;
- the sweet wines (Sauternes, Coteaux-du-Layon, straw wines, etc.);
- the dry white wines ;
- wines enriched with Cassis or cream de blueberry - we are talking about kir or myro - or other alcoholic creams, or more simply syrup (Cassis, blackberry, fishing, etc.);
- wine-based preparations, such as sangria, the marquisette or the zurracapote;
- products with a low alcohol content, beers, ciders, appreciated especially in very hot weather;
- alcohol-free products such as syrups et bitters alcohol-free (often very sweet), but also infusions or fresh decoctions (smoothed coffee, mint, etc.), cold milk, flavored or not, Juice or vegetable juice (tomato juice, carrot juice, etc.);
- water is an important element of the aperitif, either that it is intended to supplement the pastis (Still water fresh), or we want to offer an alternative to abstinent guests by alcohol and sucre (the range of Mineral water flat or sparkling is huge).
- Muscats from Beaumes-de-Venise
Wine-based aperitifs are divided into several categories:
- Vermouths: wine-based aperitif obtained from White wine or red, alcohol, mixture of aromatic plants and coloring matter (for example caramel).
Examples: Cinzano, Martini, Carpano, Noilly Prat, Vermouth de Chambéry, etc.
- Quinquinas: Blend of flavored winebark cinchona and other aromatic plants (eg orange peel). Examples: Dubonnet, Ambassador, Byrrh, Saint-Raphaël, Lillet, etc.
- Natural sweet wines (VDN): aperitif made from wine or grape juice whose fermentation was stopped by adding alcohol.
Examples: Vabé, Bartissol, Banyuls, Muscat de Rivesaltes, Frontignan, Lunel, Beaumes de Venise, etc.
- Liqueur wines (VDL): aperitif made from wine or grape juice whose fermentation was arrested by adding alcohol.
Examples: Madeira, Pineau des Charentes, Malaga, Marsala, Porto, Ratafia, Sherry (Sherry), Spine vein, etc.
"Enriched" wines: wine-based aperitif enhanced with syrup or fruit cream.
Examples: Kir, Cardinal, Communard, etc.
"Macerated" wines: aperitif made from wine in which various fruits are macerated, citrus, spices, etc.
Examples: u castagnu, the sangria, the marquisette, the zurracapote, etc.
Aperitifs based on other alcohols :
Alcohol-based aperitifs are divided into three categories:
They are made from alcohol flavored with bitter substances (coriander, cannelle, bark byoranges bitter)
Examples of bitters or bitter : Campari, Cinzano bitters, martini bitters, Angostura bitters, Amer Picon, etc.
Gentians are obtained by maceration de rhizomes de gentian inalcohol. They titrate between 16 and 18 °.
Examples: Suze, Avèze, Salers, Gentiane, etc.
Anise are made from alcohol from badiane (anis étoilé), coriander, licorice et green anise or white anise depending on the brand and also fennel for the less expensive. They titrate from 40 to 45 °.
Examples: Pernod, Ricard, Pastis 51, Duval, Casanis, Pontarlier-Anis and Absinthe (from the Pierre Guy de Pontarlier Distillery) Floranis (Anis des frères Gras), Cristal anise and Berger Blanc (very rich in white anise), etc.
Main aperitifs in France: In 2017 in France, sales of traditional aperitifs in large and medium-sized stores represented:
- 65,3 million liters of anise (pastis, anisette, Pontarlier), for a turnover of 930 million euros
- 17,8 million liters of wine-based aperitifs (ABV of which the Martini represents 2/3 of sales), for a turnover of 133 million euros
- 15,8 million liters of natural sweet wines, for a turnover of 89 million euros
- 14,4 million liters of port, for a turnover of 126 million euros
- 5,4 million liters of Gentian, for a turnover of 39 million euros
- 3,6 million liters of Pineau, for a turnover of 35 million euros
Food: We can distinguish several types of food consumption in conjunction with the absorption of aperitif drinks:
The simple aperitif is often accompanied by various amuse bouche in France like peanuts, chips, etc. The chemistry Maghrebian is an example of an assortment accompanying alcohols;
The more substantial aperitif makes it possible to put in the mouth, like the first shot of the French service of the Ancien Régime or the zakouski Russian;
The dinner aperitif brings together a certain number of practices which vary according to the times, the places and the socio-cultural categories; these practices have in common that they replace the meal traditional by various dish, as during a meal based on Tapas Spanish.
Simple accompaniments: Drinks can be accompanied by multiple amuse bouche :
- cakes savory, oleaginous various (seeds de pumpkin grillées, sunflower, ofpeanut, cashew nut, pistachios, olives, noix, Hazelnut, tramousses, Etc.),
- cheeses such as creams of Gruyère, goat cheese, hard cheeses (County, Gruyere, beaufort, Parmesan, pecorino, maredsous, etc.),
- cold cuts (ham, sausage, rillettes, laughs, sausages, belly, Etc.),
- toast (Salmon, foie gras, tapenade, pastry, houmous, etc.), fish (anchovy, spratsEtc.).
- in sea food (squid, moule, shrimp, etc.), vegetables raw (carrotsbranches of celery, cauliflower, cucumber, radish, etc.), candied in vinegar (pickles, baby onions, capers, samphire, etc.), or cooked (chips, fries).
Aperitif dinner: During an aperitif dinner, the drinks are accompanied by spot allowing the aperitif to replace the meal.
Nowadays in France, it is a type of aperitif appreciated by young adults and students.
In Italy, this practice has become widespread as a fad, or under the effect of the economic crisis, an aperitif being cheaper than a meal. It caused the opening of specialized bars, somewhat reminiscent of bars in Tapas Spanish. We give it the name of appetizera, contraction of aperitivo (aperitif) and cena (dinner). Critics are raised against the nutritional content of such meal.